For our studentsEnglish



A sentence refers to a group of words that, when read together, makes complete sense.

Types of Sentences

Type of Sentence Explanation Examples
1. Assertive/Declarative Sentences
  1. a. Positive/Affirmative Sentences
  2. b. Negative Assertions
Sentences where we make statements.
  1. Positive Statements
  2. Negative Statements
  1. He is going to the market.
  2. He is not going to the market.
2. Interrogative Sentences Where questions are asked. Is he going? Will he go?
3. Imperative Sentences Sentences used as
commands, requests,
entreaties, etc.
Shut the door. Please go.
4. Exclamatory Sentences Expresses Surprise What a brilliant book!
What a pretty scene!

Question Tags

They are used as an attachment at the end of the sentence. They are added to put emphasis on the concerned activity.

How to form Question Tags?

Question Tag for Positive sentences with helping verb: Form a negative question tag. STEPS:

  • Identify the type of sentence.
  • Mark Subject (doer) and the helping verb.
  • For example, in the sentence "Ram is a doctor", Ram (Subject) is (helping verb) a doctor,______?
  • Question tag formation:
    1. Helping verb + not + Subject (in pronoun form)
    2. So: Ram is a doctor, is not he?

Question Tag for Negative sentences with helping verb: Form a positive question tag. STEPS:

  • Identify the type of sentence.
  • Mark Subject (doer) and the helping verb.
  • Ram (Subject) is (Helping verb) not a doctor, ?
  • Question tag formation:
    1. Helping verb + Subject in pronoun form +?
    2. E.g.: Ram is not a doctor, is he?

2. Question Tag for Positive sentences without helping verb: STEPS

  • Identify the type of sentence.
  • Mark Subject (doer).
  • In question tag appropriate form of "Do" is used then if sentence is of simple present type.
  • Ram works as a doctor, does he?
  • In question tag appropriate form of "Did" is used then if sentence is of simple past type. • Ram worked as a doctor, did not he?

Points to Remember

  • Question tags are different for sentences with or without helping verbs.
  • If main part of sentence has modal verb, then question tag uses the same modal verb.
    • They could dance, couldn't they?
  • To form a question tag for sentences with 'I am': The question tag for 'I am' is 'aren't I?'
    • I'm the tallest in the class, aren't I?
English Material


What Are Articles?


  • Articles are words that are used before a noun to specify the definiteness of the noun.
  • The articles in English grammar are the and a/an
    1. i) After the long day, the cup of tea tasted
  • particularly good. o By using the article the, we've shown that it was one specific day that was long and the specific cup of tea tasted good.
    1. i) After a long day, a cup of tea tastes particularly good.
  • By using the article a, we've created a general statement, implying that any cup of tea would taste good after any long day.

Types of Articles

Definite Article

  • 'The' is the definite article.
  • It is used to limit the meaning of noun to a particular thing/person.
  • For example your friend might ask, "Are you going to the party this weekend?"
  • It is used to limit the meaning of noun to a particular thing/person.
  • For example your friend might ask, "Are you going to the party this weekend?"
  • (The definite article tells you that your friend is referring to a specific/particular party that both of you know about).
    1. E.g.: Please give me the red hammer; the blue one is too small.
    2. Please give me the large nail; it's the only one strong enough to hold this painting.
  • The definite article is used with a particular thing/person which has been already referred to.
    1. E.g.: The book you want is out of print.
  • Definite article is used with a singular noun when it is used to represent a whole class.
    1. E.g.: The horse is a noble animal.
    2. The rose is the sweetest of all the flowers.
  • The is also used before some proper names.

    E.g.: Oceans and seas - the Pacific, the Black sea; Rivers - the Ganga, the Nile; Canals - the Suez Canal; Deserts - the Gobi desert; Islands - the Andamans; Mountain ranges- the Himalayas; Certain Books - the Vedas, the Gita, the Quran, the Bible; Names of some countries - The United States, The United Kingdom; Seat of authority like the Hague etc.

  • It's also used before things that are unique in themselves.

    E.g.: the Sun, the Sky, the Earth

  • It's also used withSuperlatives.

    E.g.: This is the Best book of elementary grammar.

Indefinite Article

  • The indefinite article takes two forms - 'a' and an"
  • Generally comes before particular singular nouns.

    E.g.: a dog, a tree,

  • Word 'a' precedes a word starts with a consonant or a non-vowel sound.

    E.g.: a union, a house

  • Word 'an' precedes word that begins with a vowel sounds.

    E.g.: an elephant, an hour, an honest man

  • The indefinite article indicates that a noun refers to a general idea rather than a particular thing.
  • For example, you might ask your friend, "Should I bring a gift to the party?" Your friend will understand that you are not asking about a specific type of gift or a specific item.
  • Consider the following examples of indefinite articles used in context:
    1. i) Please hand me a book; any book will do.
    2. ii) Please hand me an autobiography; any autobiography will do.


A Noun is a word that is used as the name of a person, place or a thing.

Types of Nouns

Types of Noun Meaning Examples
Proper Noun Refers to a specific person or place. Eg: Ram, India
Common Noun Refers to a class or kind. Eg: Boy, Country
Abstract Noun Used to point out a quality, emotion, action or state of mind. Eg: Love, Hatred
Collective Noun A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things. Eg: Orchestra, bouquet, etc.

List of Collective Nouns

  • Herd– A group of herbivore animals
  • Pack– A group of canine animals such as wolves or dogs; also used to describe playing cards and packages containing multiple objects.
  • Flock– A group of birds; also used to discuss small hooved animals such as sheep or goats.
  • Swarm– A group of insects
  • Shoal– A group of fish
  • Group – A very general term used to describe people, places, things, and animals
  • Crowd – Usually used to describe a group of people
  • Gang – Usually used to describe a group of criminals; also used to describe a group of workers, particularly sailors or dock workers
  • Mob – Normally used to describe an angry or unruly group of people; also used to describe a group of kangaroos
  • Staff – A group of people who work in the same place
  • Crew – Usually used to denote a group of workers; also used to describe aircraft and ships personnel
  • Choir – A large, organized group of singers
  • Orchestra – A large, organized group of instrumentalists, led by a conductor
  • Panel – A group of experts
  • Board – A group of people, usually professionals, who take on an advisory role
  • Troupe – A group of actors or acrobats; also used to describe a group of monkeys
  • Bunch – Usually a group of smallish objects such as grapes, flowers, keys, or bananas
  • Pile – An untidy collection of items such as rubbish
  • Heap – A mounded collection of items; used interchangeably with "pile"
  • Set – A tidy group of matched objects such as dishes; also used to describe rules or a social group of people
  • Stack – A group of items neatly laid one on top of another; i.e., a stack of books
  • Series – Used to discuss movies, books, or events that follow one after another, i.e. Star Trek or Harry Potter
  • Shower – Usually used to describe rain, although it can be used to describe gifts or compliments
  • Fall – Often used to discuss weather, such as rain, snow or hail

Points to Remember

  • With Collective Noun:
    Firstly, they are gender neutral. E.g.: The army is doing its work.
    Task is to identify whether collective noun is used in plural or singular sense:
    As Singular Noun As Plural noun
    When the entire group is involved in the single job together. When the members of the group are doing different activities so they are individuals doing their own activities.
    Then such a noun is singular and we attach singular pronouns and verbs. Then such a noun is plural and we attach plural pronouns and verbs.
    Eg: Napoleon's army was beaten in battle at Waterloo. (Army is a singular collective noun because the entire army lost at the same time, "was" is a singular helping verb.) • Eg: The committee start for home early today. (Committee is a plural collective noun here as the committee members will start to go to their own house, start is a plural verb.)
  • With Material Noun:

    Material noun refers to naming words assigned to materials. E.g.: gold, silver and copper are names assigned to materials.
    No article that is (a, an, the) is used before Material Nouns.

    Incorrect usage Correct usage
    This is a gold. This is gold.
  • To use noun terms that are plural in meaning:
    To measure definite numeral To use for indefinite numeral
    Then these nouns are plural in meaning but take the same form whether singular or plural. Then these nouns take plural form.
    Eg: He has two dozen of oranges. Eg: Rajiv will bring dozens of oranges
    So, here it is defined that he has 2 dozen of bananas. Here, number of oranges is not known.
  • Nouns which are plural in nature but are used as singular nouns.

    E.g.: Subjects like Mathematics, physics, ethics, economics or general words like news, politics, mumps, etc.

    E.g.: Put on a news channel.

    Students find Physics difficult.

  • Titles of books and other works of art are necessarily considered singular.

    E.g.: "Fault Lines" is a great book.

  • There are some nouns for which we don't have plural forms.

    E.g.: gentry, poultry, cattle, people, infantry, cavalry, children, luggage, etc. We can't add "s" to make them plural.

  • A compound noun generally forms its plural by adding - s to the principal word.


    Singular Plural
    Looker-on Lookers- on
  • Many nouns' plural forms aren't conventional.
    Singular Plural
    Radius Radii
    Index Indices
    Axis Axes
    Basis Bases

Other types of Nouns:

Countable Nouns are those names and objects that we can count, E.g.: book, apple, airplanes, etc.

Uncountable Nouns are the name of things that we can't count, E.g.: milk, oil, sugar, etc.


"Pronoun" is a word that acts as a replacement for noun. They are used when we are talking about a particular subject but don't want to use the name again and again to avoid repetition.

Types of Pronouns

Subjective Objective Possessive Subjective Objective Possessive
1st person I Me my
We us our
2nd person You You your
You You your
3rd person he
They Them their

Rules to note for Pronouns

1. Placing of a pronoun is important.

Pronouns in nominative case Pronouns in accusative/objective case
  • It's used before verb.
  • Sentence starting with 'It' and after that any form of verb "be" is used then pronoun must be in nominative case. E.g.: It was only I who performed so well.
  • It's used after verb.
  • When we use words like let, but, except.
  • Never use objective case with compound conjunctions like as good as, as much as, as well as used for comparison.
Rules For Pronouns

2. Singular pronoun when the subject is single, even if it's described using two titles.

E.g.: The trustee and manager of the hospital explained his constraints to the media.

(A same person works as trustee and manager, so "his" is used as singular pronoun).

3. Plural pronoun is used when we have more than one subject.

E.g.: The trustee and the manager of the hospital explained their constraints to the media (here two different people are working as trustee and manager respectively, so "their" is used as plural pronoun).

4. When singular nouns are joined by either …or, neither … nor.

Either/ Or Neither/Nor
Here at the end only one person is involved so we end up with singular pronoun. E.g.: Either Karan or Vishal has performed already. Here both the subjects were not involved so we use singular pronoun. E.g.: Neither Karan nor Vishal has performed already.

5. Pronominal adjectives/ Possessive Adjectives: refers to possessive case of personal pronoun, they work as adjectives but are formed using Pronouns.

E.g.: This is his book. (His: is a Possessive adjective)

6. Usage of pronoun 'it':

  • Non Living objects.
  • For animals, when their gender is not of priority.
  • For infants/ babies.
  • Used as an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb. E.g.: It flows.

7. Pronoun in place of Collective Noun:

Collective noun is used as Singular then Singular Pronoun is used. Collective noun is used Plural the plural pronoun is used.
E.g.: Army is here for its march. E.g.: Committee is allowed to leave for their houses early.

8. When words like each/ every are used for subjects then pronouns must be singular. E.g.: Every male student was sitting in his seat.

9. Personal Pronouns in Objective/Accusative case

Accusative case is the case that marks the direct object of the transitive verb. So personal pronouns like I, he, she, we, they has a different form for the accusative case, which is me, him, her, us, them. E.g.: The invitation is for you and me. (not I)

10. Reflexive Pronouns: When -self/selves are added to objective case of personal pronouns then pronouns formed are called Reflexive Pronouns.

  • Self is attached to my, your, him, her, it. Used in the sentences when Subject and object is the same, E.g.: I did my work myself.
  • Selves is attached to words like our, your, them.
Yourself Yourselves

- Addressing singular third person.

- Addressing plural third person as one.

- E.g.: Keep those chocolates for yourself. (Singular third person is addressed)

- Addressing plural third person as collective.

- E.g.: Keep those chocolates for yourselves. (here a group is addressed)

Ourself Ourselves

- Used instead of 'ourselves' when 'we' refers to people in general rather than a definite group of people.

- E.g.: We must choose which aspects of ourself to express to the World.

- Addressing plural first person as collective.

- E.g.: Keep those chocolates for ourselves. (here a group is addressed)

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Lecture 1 English Material vf

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